When it comes to operational matters such as communications, training exercises, deployments, ship movements aircraft flights, etc.
Army Corps of Engineers. However, even as communications capabilities improved, the latencies inherent in the communications links and the limitations forced by channel and circuit protocol constraints have allowed only reactive C2 execution.
The need to strengthen vital PNT terrestrial coverage and extend PNT service in urban, indoor, underground, and underwater environments will continue to grow. Meanwhile, the previously mentioned proposal for implementing a National PNT Architecture by 2025 represents one effort to envision and develop a more robust PNT for the future. With network time-tagging, wireless network signals can also serve as an alternate-frequency PNT source and means of direct position calculation i.
Regional systems that transmit GNSS-like signals are also being developed to provide space-based PNT services over discrete areas of the world. Not all will survive, and those found most effective will likely be deeply integrated into end-user devices where they will perform vital and continuous functions in near anonymity.
The essence of GPS use, inherent in the precise signals that are its fundamental feature, is that GPS provides a direct, unambiguous correlation between a target point and the weapon intended to hit the target point. The Global PNT System-of-Systems GPSS comprises all the elements systems, services, components, applications used by people around the world for absolute and relative positioning and orientation, navigation, and timing synchronization and syntonization purposes.
And I believe it remains vital that the DoD continue to thoroughly consider improvements to GPS that will ensure its continued preeminence in the face of growing international participation in that arena. These terrestrial PNT systems augment GNSS by providing localized service enhancements that can be geographically limited or proliferated over broad areas e.
Other potential GBPS resources are signals of opportunity that may be employed for PNT purposes even though the systems are primarily used for applications other than navigation or timing. A hodgepodge of PNT services on the battlefield introduces vulnerabilities and confusion that can undermine both situational awareness and command and control.
This translates directly into increased probability of kill for any particular weapon, increased force employment efficiency for military mission planners, and overall lower risk for the individual military members and units that must execute the missions. Other alternatives for improving GPS services include the addition of signals at frequencies other than the legacy L1 and L2 locations.
DoD use of their signals may be necessary for military-civil compatibility in some domestic precision transportation applications or emergency response and recovery situations. More than GPS Widespread incorporation of precise PNT applications has truly changed the game for military, civil, commercial, and scientific endeavors of all kinds.
An important note: The integration of PNT with advanced digital communications and data networks provides substantial mutual benefits. The current GPS program of record envisions enhancements to radiated signal power as a potential means to improve performance. Fortunately, even though the process is maligned by many as cumbersome and bureaucratic, the Defense Acquisition System DAS offers a very systematic method for making such choices once a need is acknowledged.
Such is the role and reality for PNT in the global electronic infrastructure.