A third critique arises from the fact that some early measures of symbolic racism included direct measures of opposition to race—based policies.
University of Chicago Press. Vohs, 964.
Symbolic racism may also have played a strong influence on the general political shift from a nation governed by liberal Democrats at the end of World War II to one in which conservative Republicans seemed to have a consistent edge.
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A number of criticisms have arisen concerning symbolic racism. Their perspective posits that symbolic racism is merely a tool used by the dominant whites in society as a means of maintaining their privileged position.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South. This idea that early—socialized, abstract beliefs influence attitudes toward racial policies is contrary to other theories that suggest attitudes toward race—based policies are driven by personal interests.
Although symbolic racism is related to conservatism, and both conservative beliefs and symbolic racism contribute to opposition to race—based policies like affirmative action, the two constructs also operate independently.
For example, one might measure how quickly a participant associates negative words with photos of blacks, and the strength of this association has been considered by some to be a kind of negative racial attitude. It is based on the belief that blacks violate key American values, particularly the idea of individualism, the belief in working hard to get ahead in life.
Social Psychology general.
The way symbolic racism is openly expressed is characterized by four specific themes or beliefs: Rabinowitz, and Christopher M. For combining the items into a scale, there are several options, ranging from the simplest to the most precise: Symbolic racism became a widespread expression of discontent toward blacks by many white Americans after the civil rights era of the 1950s and 1960s.
A Contemporary Look at Symbolic Racism. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. CQ Press Library.